July 18, 2024

Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do when to do it, and who is to do it. It bridges the gap between where we are to where we want to go.

It should be based on ground reality (Local need/ SWOT analysis/ Environment analysis)

Types of Plans and Planning

mnemonics: BUTS

According to breadth

  1. Strategic Planning: Has an extended time frame, often 3 years or more (Top Managers)
  2. Tactical Planning: Intermediate-range, 1-3 years (Middle-level managers)
  3. Operational Planning: Less than one year, the specific action that supports the strategic and tactical plan

According to the time frame

  • Short term: < 1 year
  • Long-term: > 3 year

According to Specificity

  • Specific Plans: Plans that are clearly defined
  • Directional Plans: Flexible plan

According to Usability

  • Single-use plan: One-time plan for meeting unique situation
  • Standing Plan: That provides guidance for activities performed repeatedly

Steps of Planning/ Planning Process

mnemonics: Goal In The Post:- AE AD AE
  1. Establish Goals/ Objectives: Develop strategies
    • Should Have SMART goals/ Objectives
    • Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic, Time-Bound
  2. Identify Resources
  3. Establish Goals related tasks
  4. Prioritize Goals and Tasks
  5. Create Assessments and Tasks
  6. Evaluation method established
  7. Identify the alternative course of action
  8. Evaluation of alternate course of action
  9. Selection of best alternate course
  10. Determine derivation plans
  11. Formulation of the action plan
  12. Follow Up and Evaluation
Planning Cycle


Elements of Planning


  • The end towards which the activities are directed
  • Related to result and not to activity to be performed


  • It is a comprehensive plan to achieve the organizational objectives


  • The organizational general response to a particular problem/ situation


  • Required steps in advance to handle the future condition


  • Particular actions/ non-actions of the employee


  • Combination of goals, policies, procedures, and rules:- Program


  • Formalized/ systemic way of doing routine or repetitive jobs


  • Statement of expected result expressed in numerical terms in financial nature

Limitation of Planning

mnemonics: TC ko GRADe le garda
  1. Time-consuming
  2. Cost (Huge)
  3. Decrease Creativity
  4. Doesn’t guarantee
  5. Rigidity
  6. Accuracy (Lacking)
  7. Doesn’t work in a dynamic environment

External Limitations

  • Natural Calamities
  • Change in competitors’ policy
  • Change in taste/ fashion and trends in the market
  • Change in technologies
  • Change in governmental/ economic policy

See also: Management

See also: Participative Management