April 11, 2024

Counseling is “The application of mental health, psychological or human development principles, through cognitive, affective, behavioral or systemic intervention, strategies that address wellness, personal growth, or career development, as well as pathology. as per American Counseling Association.

Phases and Stages of Counseling

Phase I: Establish Relationship

  • Ice-breaking session
  • Counselee and counselor introduce each other and establish primary rapport

Phase II: Assessment

  • Data collection phase
  • Where counselor motivates the counseled to provide complete information about the problem

Phase III: Setting goals

  • Goals are set cooperatively by both the counselor and the counseled
  • While setting goals, the counselee’s strengths, weaknesses, constraints, and available resources must be kept under consideration

Phase IV: Intervention

  • Operational Phase
  • Counselee suggested the best possible option for the management of the present problem

Phase V: Termination and Follow Up

  • Final Stage
  • Counseling comes to an end

Types of Counseling

  • Directive
  • Nondirective
  • Co-operative
  • Participative
  • Desensitization
  • Catharsis
  • Insight
  • Developing the new pattern

Directive Counseling

  • Full Counseling
  • Center on counselor
  • Listen to employee’s problem: Deciding with the employee what should be done, telling and motivating the employee to do it

Non-Directive Counseling

  • Client-centered
  • Skillfully listening to the emotional problems of employee
  • Understand it
  • Determine the course of action
  • Used by professional counselors
  • Tell the person to solve his own problems and he facilitates the person to reach his goals

Co-operative Counseling

  • Counselor and client mutually cooperate to solve the problems of the client
  • Not wholly client-centered, Not wholly counselor centered

Participative Counseling

  • The middle path of the directive and non-directive counseling
  • Nor client oriented/ Nor counselor oriented
  • Counselor and counseled mutual apply their different knowledge, perception, skills, perspective, and values to the problem into the problems and find solutions


  • Once the individual is shocked by a particular situation, he/she gives himself/ herself no chance for the situation to recur
  • If the employee is once shocked by the behavior, approach, or action of his superior, he would continue to avoid that superior


  • Greek word: Cleansing
  • Discharge of emotional tension
  • By talking them out or by relieving them of the painful experiences


  • Psychoanalysis or insight helps as it goes deep into an employee’s past and brings to light past experiences and current unconscious thoughts and behavior of the employee, which believed to cause their current problem

Developing the new pattern

  • When other methods remain ineffective
  • Individual needs to explore himself

See also: Monitoring and Evaluation

See also: Time Management

See also: Human Resources in Health Management (HRM)

See also: Appreciative Inquiry